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The legions were identified by Roman numerals , though the spelling sometimes differed from the modern "standard". Until the Marian reforms of BC, the Republican legions were formed by compulsory levy of Roman citizens who met a minimum property qualification and raised whenever it was necessary.

Usually they were authorized by the Roman Senate , and were later disbanded. Gaius Marius ' reforms transformed legions into standing units, which could remain in being for several years, or even decades.

This became necessary to garrison the Republic's now far-flung territories. Legionaries started large-scale recruiting of volunteer soldiers enlisted for a minimum term of six years and a fixed salary, although conscription was still practiced.

The property requirements were abolished by Marius, so that the bulk of recruits were henceforth from the landless citizens, who would be most attracted to the paid employment and land offered after their service.

In the last century of the Republic, proconsuls governing frontier provinces became increasingly powerful. Their command of standing legions in distant and arduous military campaigns resulted in the allegiance of those units transferring from the Roman state to themselves.

In this context, the imperatores raised many legions that were not authorised by the Senate, sometimes having to use their own resources. As civil wars were resolved, many of these "private" units would be disbanded, only for more to be raised to fight the next civil war.

By the time Augustus emerged as sole ruler of Rome in 31BC, over 50 legions were in existence, many of which were disbanded. The legions included in the following list had a long enough history to be somehow remarkable.

Most of them were levied by Julius Caesar and later included into Octavian 's army, some of them were levied by Marc Antony. The numbering of the legions is confusing, since several legions shared the same number with others.

Augustus numbered the legions he founded himself from I, but also inherited numbers from his predecessors. Each emperor normally numbered the legions he raised himself starting from I.

However, even this practice was not consistently followed. For example, Vespasian kept the same numbers as before for legions he raised from disbanded units.

Trajan 's first legion was numbered XXX because there were 29 other legions in existence at the time it was raised; but the second Trajanic legion was given the sequential number II.

These three legions are without titles, suggesting that in disgrace their titles may have been deliberately forgotten or left unmentioned.

As a result of this somewhat chaotic evolution, the legion's title became necessary to distinguish between legions with the same number. Legions often carried several titles, awarded after successive campaigns, normally by the ruling emperor e.

XII Fulminata was also awarded: Pia fidelis loyal and faithful , fidelis constans and others were titles awarded to several legions, sometimes several times to the same legion.

Only the most established, commonly used titles are displayed on this table. The geographical titles indicate a the country a legion was originally recruited e.

Augusta , Flavia were either founded by that Emperor or awarded the name as a mark of special favour. This shows the castra base where the legion spent the longest period during the Principate.

Legions often shared the same base with other legions. Detachments of legions were often seconded for lengthy periods to other bases and provinces, as operational needs demanded.

Legions often sported more than one emblem at the same time, and occasionally changed them. Legions raised by Caesar mostly carried a bull emblem originally; those of Augustus mostly a Capricorn.

For legions that are documented into the 4th century and beyond, we do not know when or how they were terminated.

For legions disappearing from the record before , the reason certain or likely is given as: Province names and borders are assumed throughout the Principate period as at AD, during the rule of Trajan , and after the annexation of Dacia and Arabia Petraea.

The map above shows provinces at the end of Trajan's reign, AD. They are the same as in , except that Armenia and Mesopotamia have been annexed they were abandoned soon after Trajan's death ; and Pannonia has been split into two the split occurred c.

In reality provincial borders were modified several times during the period 30 BC AD: Diocletian reorganized the Roman army, in order to better counter the threat of the Germanic peoples of northern Europe as well as that of the Persians from the East.

The army was formed by border and field units. The border limitanei units were to occupy the limes , the structured border fortifications, and were formed by professional soldiers with an inferior training.

The field units were to stay well behind the border, and to move quickly where they were needed, with both offensive and defensive roles.

Field units were formed by elite soldiers with high-level training and weapons. The army officers as well as the cavalry were drawn from leading citizens who enrolled as equestrians equites.

The equites were later placed in smaller groups of 30 that were commanded by decurions which means commander of ten. There were 18 centuries of equites.

Until the 4th century BC the massive Greek phalanx was the mode of battle. Roman soldiers would have thus looked much like Greek hoplites.

Tactics were no different from those of the early Greeks and battles were joined on flat terrain. Spearmen would deploy themselves in tightly packed rows to form a shield wall with their spears pointing forwards.

They charged the enemy supported by javelin throwers and slingers; the cavalry pursued the enemy, sometimes dismounting to support infantry in dire situations.

The phalanx was a cumbersome military unit to manoeuvre and was easily defeated by mountain tribes such as the Volsci or Samnites in rough terrain.

Early civilian authorities called praetors doubled as military leaders during the summer war season. A declaration of war included a religious ceremony ending with the throwing of a ceremonial javelin into the enemy's territory to mark the start of hostilities.

At some point, possibly in the beginning of the Roman Republic after the kings were overthrown , the legio was subdivided into two separate legions, each one ascribed to one of the two consuls.

In the first years of the Republic, when warfare was mostly concentrated on raiding, it is uncertain if the full manpower of the legions was summoned at any one time.

In BC, when three foreign threats emerged, the dictator Manius Valerius Maximus raised ten legions which Livy says was a greater number than had been raised previously at any one time.

Also, some warfare was still conducted by Roman forces outside the legionary structure, the most famous example being the campaign in BC by the clan army of gens Fabia against the Etruscan city of Veii in which the clan was annihilated.

Legions became more formally organized in the 4th century BC, as Roman warfare evolved to more frequent and planned operations, and the consular army was raised to two legions each.

In the Republic, legions had an ephemeral existence. Except for Legio I to IV, which were the consular armies two per consul , other units were levied by campaign.

Rome's Italian allies were required to provide a legion to support each Roman Legion. Each of these three lines was subdivided into usually 10 chief tactical units called maniples.

A maniple consisted of two centuries and was commanded by the senior of the two centurions. At this time, each century of hastati and principes consisted of 60 men; a century of triarii was 30 men.

These men twenty maniples of men, and ten maniples of 60 men , together with about velites and cavalry gave the mid Republican "manipular" legion a nominal strength of about men.

The Marian reforms of Gaius Marius enlarged the centuries to 80 men, and grouped them into 6-century "cohorts" rather than two-century maniples.

Each century had its own standard and was made up of ten units contubernia of eight men who shared a tent, a millstone, a mule and cooking pot.

Following the reforms of the general Marius in the 2nd century BC, the legions took on the second, narrower meaning that is familiar in the popular imagination as close-order citizen heavy infantry.

At the end of the 2nd century BC, Gaius Marius reformed the previously ephemeral legions as a professional force drawing from the poorest classes, enabling Rome to field larger armies and providing employment for jobless citizens of the city of Rome.

However, this put the loyalty of the soldiers in the hands of their general rather than the State of Rome itself. This development ultimately enabled Julius Caesar to cross the Rubicon with an army loyal to him personally and effectively end the Republic.

The legions of the late Republic and early Empire are often called Marian legions. He justified this action to the Senate by saying that in the din of battle he could not distinguish Roman from ally [ citation needed ].

This effectively eliminated the notion of allied legions; henceforth all Italian legions would be regarded as Roman legions, and full Roman citizenship was open to all the regions of Italy.

At the same time, the three different types of heavy infantry were replaced by a single, standard type based on the Principes: The role of allied legions would eventually be taken up by contingents of allied auxiliary troops, called Auxilia.

Auxilia contained specialist units, engineers and pioneers, artillerymen and craftsmen, service and support personnel and irregular units made up of non-citizens, mercenaries and local militia.

These were usually formed into complete units such as light cavalry, light infantry or velites , and labourers.

There was also a reconnaissance squad of 10 or more light mounted infantry called speculatores who could also serve as messengers or even as an early form of military intelligence service.

As part of the Marian reforms, the legions' internal organization was standardized. Each legion was divided into cohorts. Prior to this, cohorts had been temporary administrative units or tactical task forces of several maniples, even more transitory than the legions themselves.

Now the cohorts were ten permanent units, composed of 6 centuries and in the case of the first cohort 12 centuries each led by a centurion assisted by an optio.

The cohorts came to form the basic tactical unit of the legions. Ranking within the legion was based on length of service, with the senior Centurion commanding the first century of the first cohort; he was called the primus pilus First File , and reported directly to the superior officers legates and tribuni.

All career soldiers could be promoted to the higher ranks in recognition of exceptional acts of bravery or valour.

A newly promoted junior Centurion would be assigned to the sixth century of the tenth cohort and slowly progressed through the ranks from there.

Every legion had a large baggage train which included mules 1 mule for every 8 legionaries only for the soldiers' equipment. To make this easier, he issued each legionary a cross stick to carry their loads on their shoulders.

The soldiers were nicknamed Marius' Mules because of the amount of gear they had to carry themselves. This arrangement allowed for the possibility for the supply train to become temporarily detached from the main body of the legion, thus greatly increasing the army's speed when needed.

A typical legion of this period had 5, legionaries as well as a large number of camp followers, servants and slaves. Legions could contain as many as 6, fighting men when including the auxiliaries, although much later in Roman history the number was reduced to 1, to allow for greater mobility.

Numbers would also vary depending on casualties suffered during a campaign; Julius Caesar 's legions during his campaign in Gaul often only had around 3, men.

Tactics were not very different from the past, but their effectiveness was largely improved because of the professional training of the soldiers.

A re-enactor, showing a Roman miles , 2nd century. After the Marian reforms, and throughout the history of Rome's Late Republic, the legions played an important political role.

By the 1st century BC the threat of the legions under a demagogue was recognized. Governors were not allowed to leave their provinces with their legions.

When Julius Caesar broke this rule, leaving his province of Gaul and crossing the Rubicon into Italy, he precipitated a constitutional crisis. This crisis and the civil wars which followed brought an end to the Republic and led to the foundation of the Empire under Augustus in 27 BC.

The Roman empire under Hadrian ruled —38 , showing the legions deployed in Generals, during the recent Republican civil wars, had formed their own legions and numbered them as they wished.

During this time, there was a high incidence of Gemina twin legions, where two legions were consolidated into a single organization and was later made official and put under a legatus and six duces.

At the end of the civil war against Mark Antony , Augustus was left with around fifty legions, with several double counts multiple Legio Xs for instance.

For political and economic reasons, Augustus reduced the number of legions to 28 which diminished to 25 after the Battle of Teutoburg Forest , in which 3 legions were completely destroyed by the Germanics.

Beside streamlining the army Augustus also regulated the soldiers' pay. At the same time, he greatly increased the number of auxiliaries to the point where they were equal in number to the legionaries.

He also created the Praetorian Guard along with a permanent navy where served the liberti , or freed slaves. Augustus' military policies proved sound and cost effective, and were generally followed by his successors.

These emperors would carefully add new legions, as circumstances required or permitted, until the strength of the standing army stood at around 30 legions hence the wry remark of the philosopher Favorinus that It is ill arguing with the master of 30 legions.

With each legion having 5, legionaries usually supported by an equal number of auxiliary troops, the total force available to a legion commander during the Pax Romana probably ranged from 11, downwards, with the more prestigious legions and those stationed on hostile borders or in restive provinces tending to have more auxiliaries.

Some legions may have even been reinforced at times with units making the associated force near 15,—16, or about the size of a modern division.

Throughout the imperial era, the legions played an important political role. Their actions could secure the empire for a usurper or take it away.

For example, the defeat of Vitellius in the Year of the Four Emperors was decided when the Danubian legions chose to support Vespasian.

In the empire, the legion was standardized, with symbols and an individual history where men were proud to serve. The legion was commanded by a legatus or legate.

Aged around thirty, he would usually be a senator on a three year appointment. Immediately subordinate to the legate would be six elected military tribunes — five would be staff officers and the remaining one would be a noble heading for the Senate originally this tribune commanded the legion.

There would also be a group of officers for the medical staff, the engineers, record-keepers, the praefectus castrorum commander of the camp and other specialists such as priests and musicians.

There is no evidence to suggest that legions changed in form before the Tetrarchy , although there is evidence that they were smaller than the paper strengths usually quoted.

The final form of the legion originated with the elite legiones palatinae created by Diocletian and the Tetrarchs.

These were infantry units of around 1, men rather than the 5,, including cavalry, of the old Legions. The earliest legiones palatinae were the Lanciarii , Joviani , Herculiani and Divitenses.

The 4th century saw a very large number of new, small legions created, a process which began under Constantine II. In addition to the elite palatini , other legions called comitatenses and pseudocomitatenses , along with the auxilia palatina , provided the infantry of late Roman armies.

The Notitia Dignitatum lists 25 legiones palatinae , 70 legiones comitatenses , 47 legiones pseudocomitatenses and auxilia palatina in the field armies, and a further 47 legiones in the frontier armies.

The names also suggest that many new legions were formed from vexillationes or from old legions. In addition there were 24 vexillationes palatini, 73 vexillationes comitatenses; other units in the Eastern limitanei and in the Western limitanei.

According to the late Roman writer Vegetius ' De Re Militari , each century had a ballista and each cohort had an onager , giving the legion a formidable siege train of 59 Ballistae and 10 Onagers each manned by 10 libritors artillerymen and mounted on wagons drawn by oxen or mules.

In addition to attacking cities and fortifications, these would be used to help defend Roman forts and fortified camps castra as well.

They would even be employed on occasion, especially in the later Empire, as field artillery during battles or in support of river crossings.

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